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2022’s Cities Where Lawns Go to Die

2022’s Cities Where Lawns Go to Die

By Sav Maive, Lawn Love
Graphic courtesy of Lawn Love

Temperatures across the country have been hot, hot, hot. That’s nice if you enjoy warm weather, but it hasn’t been so good for our lawns.

Amid a brutal summer, where in the U.S. are lawns likely turning brown and dying?

To find out, Lawn Love ranked nearly 200 of the biggest U.S. cities to determine 2022’s Cities Where Lawns Go to Die.

We looked for cities with high risk of drought, wildfire, and heatwaves, in addition to forced water cuts and extreme weather. We also weighed the water requirement for each city’s most common grass types against the average yard size.

See where the grass is literally greener in our city rankings and analysis below.

See how each city fared in our ranking:

Rank

City

Overall Score

Lawn Watering

Needs Rank

Water

Restrictions Rank

Climate Disaster

Risk Rank

Extreme

Weather Rank

1

Bakersfield, CA

72.08

91

1

10

14

2

Fresno, CA

71.41

90

1

10

15

3

Palmdale, CA

68.43

70

1

1

51

4

Santa Clarita, CA

67.67

75

1

1

51

5

Scottsdale, AZ

67.38

115

1

36

1

6

Pasadena, CA

67.28

79

1

1

51

7

Lancaster, CA

66.75

83

1

1

51

8

Reno, NV

66.26

62

1

25

20

9

Peoria, AZ

66.08

168

1

30

1

10

Pomona, CA

66.01

98

1

1

51

11

Glendale, CA

65.88

101

1

1

51

12

Modesto, CA

65.73

108

1

12

18

13

Torrance, CA

64.91

130

1

1

51

14

Mesa, AZ

64.66

163

1

36

1

15

Glendale, AZ

64.65

164

1

36

1

16

Los Angeles, CA

64.48

135

1

1

74

17

Long Beach, CA

64.42

146

1

1

50

18

Gilbert, AZ

64.35

172

1

36

1

19

Phoenix, AZ

64.21

176

1

36

1

20

Tempe, AZ

64.18

177

1

36

1

21

Chandler, AZ

63.99

184

1

36

1

22

Escondido, CA

60.71

57

1

26

82

23

Salinas, CA

60.09

66

1

12

105

24

Riverside, CA

59.78

74

1

15

51

25

Tucson, AZ

59.44

100

1

57

12

26

Stockton, CA

59.39

102

1

31

18

27

Oxnard, CA

58.99

142

1

14

51

28

Moreno Valley, CA

57.7

106

1

15

51

29

Corona, CA

57.7

107

1

15

51

30

Fullerton, CA

57.18

103

1

18

51

31

Lakewood, CO

56.97

13

1

91

45

32

Orange, CA

56.86

113

1

18

51

33

Santa Ana, CA

56.78

116

1

18

51

34

Anaheim, CA

56.58

125

1

18

51

35

Garden Grove, CA

56.39

128

1

18

51

36

Huntington Beach, CA

55.29

151

1

18

51

37

Rancho Cucamonga, CA

55.27

89

1

31

51

38

San Bernardino, CA

55.11

94

1

31

51

39

Irvine, CA

54.92

153

1

18

51

40

Sacramento, CA

54.46

92

1

52

23

41

Oceanside, CA

54.29

109

1

26

82

42

Fontana, CA

54.24

111

1

31

51

43

Ontario, CA

54.08

118

1

31

51

44

Chula Vista, CA

53.96

121

1

26

82

45

Fort Collins, CO

53.69

14

1

112

45

46

San Diego, CA

53.61

129

1

26

82

47

Elk Grove, CA

53.05

127

1

52

23

48

Santa Rosa, CA

51.87

83

1

49

51

49

Las Vegas, NV

51.82

73

1

145

9

50

Denver, CO

51.75

25

1

112

45

51

Henderson, NV

51.61

76

1

145

9

52

North Las Vegas, NV

51.15

80

1

145

9

53

Aurora, CO

51.07

24

1

143

45

54

Colorado Springs, CO

50.93

21

1

112

80

55

Albuquerque, NM

50.13

158

1

54

21

56

Thornton, CO

48.78

28

1

150

45

57

San Jose, CA

45.5

145

1

49

105

58

Sunnyvale, CA

45.3

149

1

49

105

59

Boise City, ID

44.92

15

64

109

44

60

St. Louis, MO

42.82

19

64

64

117

61

Salt Lake City, UT

42.03

162

1

91

32

62

Spokane, WA

41.08

27

64

91

95

63

Tallahassee, FL

40.28

60

64

54

98

64

Kansas City, KS

40.07

39

64

64

113

65

Tulsa, OK

39.24

61

64

59

91

66

Oklahoma City, OK

39.18

59

64

86

75

67

Springfield, MO

38.41

4

64

112

140

68

Hayward, CA

37.98

120

1

101

105

69

Fort Wayne, IN

37.77

3

64

112

154

70

San Francisco, CA

37.55

180

1

64

105

71

Fremont, CA

37.46

132

1

101

105

72

Minneapolis, MN

37.36

12

64

112

134

73

Lincoln, NE

37.06

35

64

112

90

74

Midland, TX

36.94

88

64

112

16

75

Shreveport, LA

36.86

71

64

59

88

76

Cape Coral, FL

36.64

82

64

54

92

76

Joliet, IL

36.64

6

64

112

160

78

Oakland, CA

36.55

152

1

101

105

79

Grand Rapids, MI

36.4

2

64

112

180

80

Lubbock, TX

36.38

155

64

64

22

81

Fort Lauderdale, FL

36.38

95

64

43

128

82

McKinney, TX

36.31

105

64

64

33

83

Naperville, IL

36.22

11

64

112

160

84

Savannah, GA

36.19

148

64

43

100

85

Aurora, IL

36.01

23

64

108

160

86

Fort Worth, TX

35.85

159

64

58

33

87

Mobile, AL

35.66

93

64

43

148

88

Sioux Falls, SD

35.49

36

64

112

102

89

Miramar, FL

35.48

124

64

43

128

90

Hollywood, FL

34.99

133

64

43

128

91

Killeen, TX

34.89

157

64

64

29

92

Pembroke Pines, FL

34.78

137

64

43

128

93

Denton, TX

34.65

147

64

64

33

94

El Paso, TX

34.63

167

64

112

13

95

Chicago, IL

34.45

45

64

99

160

96

McAllen, TX

34.41

182

64

64

25

97

Kansas City, MO

34.4

10

64

155

113

98

Rockford, IL

34.31

1

64

156

164

99

Omaha, NE

34.19

53

64

112

99

100

Austin, TX

34.04

144

64

88

29

101

Macon, GA

33.25

63

64

106

81

102

Detroit, MI

33.24

38

64

112

145

103

Plano, TX

33.19

165

64

64

33

104

Rochester, NY

33.12

29

64

112

168

105

Madison, WI

32.99

34

64

112

159

106

Arlington, TX

32.87

175

64

64

33

107

Wichita, KS

32.8

37

64

156

78

108

San Antonio, TX

32.76

150

64

104

25

109

Orlando, FL

32.7

81

64

91

79

110

Jacksonville, FL

32.65

68

64

91

96

111

St. Paul, MN

32.55

8

64

156

134

112

Baltimore, MD

32.53

44

64

112

146

113

Frisco, TX

32.32

187

64

64

33

114

Dallas, TX

32.26

161

64

87

33

115

Des Moines, IA

32.26

9

64

156

136

116

Salem, OR

32.12

5

64

154

172

117

Murfreesboro, TN

32.09

72

64

64

125

118

Amarillo, TX

31.84

119

64

111

31

119

Eugene, OR

31.65

16

64

145

186

120

Lexington, KY

31.5

40

64

112

170

121

Columbus, GA

31.49

131

64

64

89

122

Louisville, KY

31.32

54

64

112

147

123

Garland, TX

31.22

171

64

88

33

124

Portland, OR

31.19

22

64

153

166

125

Philadelphia, PA

31.18

52

64

112

157

126

Winston-Salem, NC

30.82

78

64

64

138

127

Indianapolis, IN

30.6

7

64

156

169

128

Miami, FL

30.48

109

64

62

128

129

Nashville, TN

30.42

85

64

64

125

130

Jersey City, NJ

30.11

48

64

112

178

131

Mesquite, TX

30.08

178

64

99

33

132

Baton Rouge, LA

30.01

122

64

64

104

133

Cary, NC

29.98

143

64

59

119

134

Port St. Lucie, FL

29.76

86

64

64

142

135

Little Rock, AR

29.7

65

64

112

93

136

Pasadena, TX

29.63

170

64

64

86

137

Raleigh, NC

29.56

112

64

64

119

138

Greensboro, NC

29.46

96

64

64

138

139

Hialeah, FL

29.39

139

64

62

128

140

Grand Prairie, TX

29.36

174

64

104

33

141

Springfield, MA

29.06

17

64

156

175

142

Overland Park, KS

28.91

41

64

156

113

143

Laredo, TX

28.66

188

64

112

25

144

Providence, RI

28.62

56

64

112

190

145

Fayetteville, NC

28.45

69

64

109

119

146

Olathe, KS

28.36

47

64

156

113

147

Durham, NC

28.27

99

64

88

119

148

St. Petersburg, FL

28.14

114

64

112

76

149

Jackson, MS

28.06

126

64

97

101

150

Bellevue, WA

27.84

20

64

156

187

151

Corpus Christi, TX

27.74

169

64

144

28

152

Vancouver, WA

27.42

32

64

156

166

153

Worcester, MA

27.42

18

64

156

193

154

Irving, TX

27.15

185

64

112

33

155

Pittsburgh, PA

26.85

26

64

156

185

156

Houston, TX

26.61

186

64

97

86

157

Milwaukee, WI

26.53

43

64

156

165

158

Bridgeport, CT

26.49

31

64

156

184

159

Birmingham, AL

26.41

87

64

106

137

160

Tacoma, WA

26.26

30

64

156

187

161

Syracuse, NY

26.21

33

64

156

181

162

Chattanooga, TN

25.94

123

64

91

149

163

Brownsville, TX

25.93

160

64

156

17

164

Alexandria, VA

25.86

181

64

64

123

165

Arlington, VA

25.09

189

64

64

123

166

Paterson, NJ

25.08

42

64

156

182

167

Newark, NJ

25.07

49

64

156

174

168

Charlotte, NC

24.99

117

64

112

103

169

Boston, MA

24.68

51

64

156

175

170

Seattle, WA

24.43

46

64

156

187

171

Yonkers, NY

24.16

55

64

156

178

172

Buffalo, NY

23.6

50

64

156

191

173

Augusta, GA

23.53

134

64

145

94

174

Tampa, FL

23.37

97

64

156

76

175

Memphis, TN

22.57

156

64

112

112

176

Huntsville, AL

22.49

77

64

150

144

177

Clarksville, TN

22.2

64

64

156

125

178

New York, NY

20.5

58

64

193

192

179

Knoxville, TN

20.38

67

64

156

158

180

Atlanta, GA

19.65

136

64

150

143

181

Cincinnati, OH

19.62

173

64

112

155

182

Montgomery, AL

19.51

141

64

156

97

183

Richmond, VA

17.97

140

64

156

118

184

Virginia Beach, VA

17.77

104

64

156

150

185

Chesapeake, VA

16.55

138

64

156

150

186

Columbus, OH

15.97

192

64

112

173

187

Newport News, VA

15.5

154

64

156

150

188

Norfolk, VA

14.05

183

64

156

150

189

New Orleans, LA

13.08

191

64

156

141

190

Dayton, OH

13.06

179

64

156

171

191

Toledo, OH

12.97

190

64

156

156

192

Akron, OH

12.6

166

64

156

183

193

Cleveland, OH

10.11

193

64

156

177

Note: For presentation purposes, not all ties for some metrics may be displayed in the above infographic.

Results In Depth

Heat Until Golden Brown

Lawns are longing for a cooldown in California, where many cities are dealing with drought, heatwaves, and wildfires. In response, the Golden State has implemented some emergency water restrictions on top of federally imposed cutbacks in the Southwest.

High scores (meaning worse conditions) across the Water Restrictions and Climate Disaster Risk categories placed 36 (of 42 total) Cali cities among our worst 50. Extreme Weather is a factor in many Golden State cities, too. Low precipitation is exacerbating the continuous drought, especially in Southern California.

At No. 1 overall, Bakersfield lawns are most at risk of getting baked, followed by Fresno (No. 2), Palmdale (No. 3), and Santa Clarita (No. 4). These dry valley regions deal with some of the lowest historical precipitation rates in the nation and are most affected by drought conditions.

Pro tip: If your lawn is dreary after a dry summer, help it recover from drought yourself, or hire a Lawn Love pro to do it for you. Until new grass sprouts up, keep your lawn vibrant by painting it green.

Wishing For Water

You can hear the grass crunch underneath you in Southwestern cities — that is, if there’s any grass left in your neighborhood.

Outside of California, it’s no surprise that cities in Arizona, Nevada, and Colorado took up some of the worst spots of our ranking. The Southwest has been struggling with a megadrought for the past two decades, and experts claim it’s drier now than it’s been in 1,200 years.

Scottsdale, Arizona (No. 6), Reno, Nevada (No. 8), and Peoria, Arizona (No. 9) were among the 10 most scorched. With extremely hot, sunny days and little rain, Arizona is facing the most Extreme Weather (No. 1 in this category), but each of these three cities is dealing with heatwaves and water use limitations.

Pro tips:

  • Replace your turf with an eco-friendly alternative — alternatives to traditional lawns are growing in popularity as homeowners in the Southwest are giving up on green grass. Some areas are even banning decorative grass.
  • If you live in Phoenix or Scottsdale, consider replacing your grass with the best native plants for your region.

GardenSMART Article Image

The Grass Is Greener On The Other Side (Of The Country)

Don’t be green with envy looking at yards across Ohio and Virginia.

Grass likely won’t dry out in Ohio cities like Cleveland (No. 193 or No. 1 worst), Akron (No. 192), Toledo (No. 191), and Dayton (No. 190) or any of the Commonwealth’s cities following closely behind.

Ohio’s cool, rainy climate keeps lawns nice and verdant throughout the summer. Meanwhile, humid summer storms in Virginia keep the grass hydrated, and there’s a low risk of drought in these two states in the first place.

Pro tip: It’s still beneficial to preserve water in these states, so if you water your lawn, do so mindfully.

Sweaty And Singed In The Southeast

Swampy Southeastern cities aren’t known for frequently battling wildfires, but some cities pose a higher risk of blistering after a hot summer.

In Florida, it’s been a record season for wildfires. With such dry conditions, a lightning strike or a casual bonfire could quickly go out of hand in cities like Fort Lauderdale (No. 81), Miramar (No. 89), and Hollywood (No. 90).

Outside of the Sunshine State, cities like Mobile, Alabama (No. 87), and Savannah, Georgia (No. 84), are at higher risk of wildfires, too.

Pro tip: Use fire-resistant landscaping to help defend your home from wildfire threats.

Expert Take

Lawn irrigation might not seem like a big deal, but it’s costing homeowners across the country a lot of green. More than a third of the average American household’s water bill goes toward lawn irrigation, and that can go up to 60% in warmer regions.

In light of continuing droughts, it’s best to practice eco-friendly lawn maintenance. We turned to some experts to learn how to be more water-wise — read what they had to say below.

Bryan G. Hopkins, Ph.D., CPSS, Professor, Coordinator, Soil Science Society of America—NAPT, Brigham Young University

How can homeowners who are dealing with a water ban maintain a nice-looking lawn throughout extreme heat and drought conditions?

  1. Select aesthetic lawn species that are drought-resistant and low water users, such as Bermudagrass, where it is available.
  2. Select cultivars of that species that are especially drought-resistant and low water users.
  3. Allow the grass to become drought-stressed in the spring to the point where it appears stressed, and then irrigate (if water is available) so that the water reaches the depth of roots (dig down to see). Repeat this once.
  4. If limited water is available, irrigate deeply to the depth of rooting and infrequently according to evapotranspiration water losses (this can be weeks apart in spring or fall and 2-7 days apart in the summer.)
  5. Properly install and maintain the sprinkler system to provide maximum water distribution uniformity (fix leaks, proper heads and nozzles, sprinkler head to sprinkler head coverage, upright sprinkler heads, trim plants, and remove objects that are in the way of the water stream, proper pressure).
  6. Replace antiquated irrigation controllers with a Smart Irrigation Controller, which is surprisingly affordable and often can be subsidized by cities, HOAs, etc.
  7. Fertilize properly with an adequate, not excessive amount, of nitrogen season-long (especially during the fall), and apply the other nutrients based on a soil test.
  8. Mow at the proper height for the species of the lawn (mowing too short results in short roots).
  9. Water in the mornings if possible (wind increases later in the day, and watering at night prevents identifying problems, as well as increases the likelihood of disease).

What is the best way for homeowners to prevent wasting water outside?

Grass is good, but minimize it when possible. Plants are important for many, many reasons (aesthetics, property values, cooling of the environment, generating oxygen, mental and physical health, etc.), but having a diverse landscape is best for many reasons.

Grass tends to require more water than most other types of plants. Mulched beds with water-conserving plant species are beautiful and can be low maintenance if done properly. These can get by with little or no water.

Plant enough grass to have an aesthetic landscape that is also functional, but look for ways to reduce the percentage of grass in the landscape (and this is coming from the “grass guy at BYU.”

Yes, I love grass. I teach about grass. I would hate a world that didn’t have some grass to play and walk on, but most landscapes I consult on and observe can dramatically reduce the percentage of grass with no or minimal lost benefits.

I can typically reduce water consumption by 80-90% in the landscape and still have a gorgeous property with excellent property value.

What is your best tip for distinguishing lawn damage caused by pests or disease from drought damage?

Drought-stressed grass is easily identified as it has a dark green or gray hue to it and doesn’t bounce back upright when stepped on. If the grass is dead, it is often too late to be able to confidently determine the reason for the necrosis, although patterns in the grass can be helpful.

For example, dead grass that follows sprinkler patterns is often related to drought stress in irrigated lawns. Also, check areas where the soil would reasonably dry out sooner (such as tops of hills, south-facing slopes, or next to concrete and other hardscape surfaces).

Disease damage can often be identified by patterns as well, such as distinctive rings for some pathogen damage. Insect damage can be distinctive, such as those that eat the root or crowns can result in the sod being able to be lifted up like a carpet.

Checking the soil moisture is also helpful. This can be done qualitatively by simply feeling the soil from a shovel or soil probe, or more quantitatively by using a soil moisture meter (often, diseased grass looks like it is dry, but there is plenty of moisture in the soil).

Shaku Nair, Ph.D., Entomologist & Associate in Extension-Community IPM, University of Arizona, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cooperative Extension Arizona Pest Management Center

How can homeowners who are dealing with a water ban maintain a nice-looking lawn throughout extreme heat and drought conditions?

Since water is the most limiting factor during a drought, use it judiciously (see below for tips to prevent water wastage). Set higher mowing heights (3-4 inches), which holds moisture better and results in a deeper root system. Avoid excess N fertilizers, this can burn an already stressed lawn. Reschedule all fertilizer applications for when temperatures cool down (mid-late Sept).

What is the best way for homeowners to prevent wasting water outside?

Monitor your irrigation system every day, to make sure that sprinklers are working, and most important – targeting the lawn and not the roads, sidewalks and other areas. Check for leaks in irrigation tubes, and avoid water pooling in the lawn or outside. Water during early morning, this results in minimal loss to evaporation and maximum retention in the lawn.

What is your best tip for distinguishing lawn damage caused by pests or disease from drought damage?

Change in color. Drought-affected turf shows gradual change in color (from green to dark green, then brown), and large areas are uniformly affected. Pest and disease symptoms usually start in one or more spots and spread from there. Disease affected turf turns yellow, then brown. Damage by pests may be seen as bare patches with complete loss of green (e.g., armyworms), or pale yellow followed by brown when roots are damaged (white grubs).

Fereshteh Shahoveisi, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Turfgrass Pathology, University of Maryland, Department of Plant Sciences and Landscape

How can homeowners who are dealing with a water ban maintain a nice-looking lawn throughout extreme heat and drought conditions?

Infrequent but deep watering is a good approach to using less water and also promotes root growth which makes the grass more tolerant to drought. Also, watering early in the morning is recommended to avoid water evaporation.

Keeping the mowing height higher helps the root system grow deeper and access water in the deeper layers of soil. Make sure the mower blades are sharp so the grass heals faster in drought conditions.

Excessive fertilizer would not help to make the grass look better. It might promote growth in the beginning, but the new grass is more susceptible to drought and dies faster. It is better to wait till early fall for fertilization.

Use drought-resistant cultivars when establishing a new lawn or if you want to renew some areas. You can consult with your home lawn care specialist or university experts to find out the best drought-resistant cultivar that is available in your region.

Also, be aware that cool-season grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass and fescues become dormant during heat and drought stress. Dormant grass looks brownish in color, but the root system is alive, and the grass will resume growing when the stress situation is gone. Only a very severe drought kills the grass.

What is the best way for homeowners to prevent wasting water outside?

It is good to know the estimated water requirement for the type of turf you have and for your region. This helps to avoid excessive watering, which not only results in wasting water but promotes diseases.

Monitoring weather conditions helps to avoid unnecessary irrigation. For example, if there is a rain event, then the turf needs less water in the next irrigation, or if the weather forecasts show a drop in temperature for a few days, you might be able to postpone the irrigation or irrigate with less water.

As it was mentioned before, drought-resistant cultivars are a great option for saving water as their water requirements are lower.

What is your best tip for distinguishing lawn damage caused by pests or diseases from drought damage?

One way to distinguish drought from disease is to monitor weather conditions. Drought happens when temperatures are high and precipitation is low, while most diseases are favored by humidity and prolonged leaf wetness, either under cool or warm weather conditions, depending on the disease.

With foliar turfgrass diseases (those that affect the above-ground parts of the grass), you normally see yellow-brown, purplish, or tan color lesions or blighting, while with drought stress, there would not be any localized discoloration on the leaf blades.

Identification of the root diseases is harder as the general above-ground symptoms are similar to other abiotic stress factors. You might be able to see discoloration and darkening in root and/or crown areas if a root pathogen is present, a hand lens would be helpful to see the darkening.

In the bigger picture, turf diseases normally appear in patterns like patches, spots, or areas that have poor drainage. On the other hand, drought-stressed grass is more susceptible to traffic, and you would see discolored grass from wheel tracks or footprints. When drought symptoms progress, the whole leaf blade starts to turn yellow-brown in color.

Getting familiar with the common diseases in your region and the time of year they occur can help to identify diseases. Being familiar with the signs and symptoms of common turfgrass diseases is necessary to distinguish them from drought stress.

Some diseases have unique characteristics, or you might be able to see the pathogen structures growing on the grass and therefore identify the disease. University Extensions have educational classes that you could attend and learn about problematic diseases in your region.

Lastly, if you are not sure if it is a disease or abiotic stress, the best way is to send samples to plant diagnostic labs or consult with an expert.

Methodology

For each of the 200 biggest U.S. cities, we gathered publicly available data on the factors listed in the table below.

We then grouped those factors into four categories: Lawn Watering Needs, Water Restrictions, Climate Disaster Risk, and Extreme Weather.

Next, we calculated weighted scores for each city in each category.

Finally, we averaged the scores for each city across all categories. We eliminated seven cities lacking sufficient data, resulting in a total sample size of 193 cities.

The city that earned the highest average score was ranked “Worst,” or “Where Lawns Are Most Likely to Die” (No. 1), while the city with the lowest was ranked “Best,” or “Where Lawns Are Most Likely to Survive” (No. 193). (Note: The “Worst” among individual factors may not be 193 due to ties.)

Sources:

National Center for Disaster Preparedness, Federal Housing Finance Agency, Lawn Love, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Water Education Colorado

Final Thoughts: Xeriscape To Save

You don’t need to give up a stunning landscape in order to reduce your water consumption.

Save money and help the planet when you decrease your dependence on water by xeriscaping your yard. Reduce (or totally eliminate) your turfgrass, and do one of the following instead:

Some regions are even financially rewarding homeowners who switch to water-conservative landscaping. For instance, the Coachella Valley Water District in California is offering a rebate program to pay homeowners $3 for every square foot of grass they remove. That goes up to $6 per square foot if you live in the city of Rancho Mirage.

Want to be wise about your water use but don’t want to say goodbye to your precious grass? Opt for a drought-tolerant grass type, such as tall fescue, Buffalograss, and Bermudagrass.

To further help your lawn weather the heat, hire a local Lawn Love pro who can help you grow the eco-friendly landscape of your dreams.

Sav Maive is a writer and director based in San Antonio. Sav is a recent graduate from the University of Virginia and is a loving cat and plant mom.


All articles are copyrighted and remain the property of the author.

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